### SAS/STAT(R) 14.1 User's Guide,Syntax Guide

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For example -threshold will by default grayscale the image before thresholding, if no -channel setting has been defined. This is not 'Sync flag controlled, yet. Also some operators such as -blur , -gaussian-blur , will modify their handling of the color channels if the ' alpha ' channel is also enabled by -channel. Generally this done to ensure that fully-transparent colors are treated as being fully-transparent, and thus any underlying 'hidden' color has no effect on the final results.

Typically resulting in 'halo' effects. The newer -morphology convolution equivalents however does have a understanding of the 'Sync' flag and will thus handle transparency correctly by default. As an alpha channel is optional within images, some operators will read the color channels of an image as a greyscale alpha mask, when the image has no alpha channel present, and the -channel setting tells the operator to apply the operation using alpha channels.

The -clut operator is a good example of this. The expression consists of one or more channels, either mnemonic or numeric e. red or 0, green or 1, etc. For example, to create 3 grayscale images from the red, green, and blue channels of an image, use:. Here we take an sRGB image and a grayscale image and inject the grayscale image into the alpha channel:. Add -debug pixel prior to the -channel-fx option to track the channel morphology. The width and height given in the of the size portion of the geometry argument give the number of columns and rows to remove.

The offset portion of the geometry argument is influenced by a -gravity setting, if present. The -chop option removes entire rows and columns, and moves the remaining corner blocks leftward and upward to close the gaps. While it can remove internal rows and columns of pixels, it is more typically used with as -gravity setting and zero offsets so as to remove a single edge from an image.

Compare this to -shave which removes equal numbers of pixels from opposite sides of the image. Using -chop effectively undoes the results of a -splice that was given the same geometry and -gravity settings. The image is divided into tiles of width and height pixels. The tile size should be larger than the size of features to be preserved and respects the aspect ratio of the image.

to force an exact tile width and height. number-bins is the number of histogram bins per tile min 2, max The number of histogram bins should be smaller than the number of pixels in a single tile. clip-limit is the contrast limit for localized changes in contrast.

A clip-limit of 2 to 3 is a good starting place e. Very large values will let the histogram equalization do whatever it wants to do, that is result in maximal local contrast. The value 1 will result in the original image. Note, if the number of bins and the clip-limit are ommitted, they default to and no clipping respectively.

Set each pixel whose value is below zero to zero and any the pixel whose value is above the quantum range to the quantum range e. The -clip feature requires SVG support.

If the SVG delegate library is not present, the option is ignored. Use the alpha channel of the current image as a mask. Any areas that is white is not modified by any of the 'image processing operators' that follow, until the mask is removed. Pixels in the black areas of the clip mask are modified per the requirements of the operator.

In some ways this is similar to though not the same as defining a rectangular -region , or using the negative of the mask third image in a three image -composite , operation. This is identical to -clip except choose a specific clip path in the event the image has more than one path available.

ImageMagick supports UTF-8 encoding. Inside parenthesis where the operator is normally used it will make a clone of the images from the last 'pushed' image sequence, and adds them to the end of the current image sequence. Outside parenthesis not recommended it clones the images from the current image sequence.

Specify the image by its index in the sequence. The first image is index 0. Specify a range of images with a dash e. Separate multiple indexes with commas but no spaces e.

Replace the channel values in the first image using each corresponding channel in the second image as a c olor l ook u p t able. The second LUT image is ordinarily a gradient image containing the histogram mapping of how each channel should be modified.

Typically it is a either a single row or column image of replacement color values. If larger than a single row or column, values are taken from a diagonal line from top-left to bottom-right corners. The lookup is further controlled by the -interpolate setting, which is especially handy for an LUT which is not the full length needed by the ImageMagick installed Quality Q level.

Good settings for this are ' bilinear ' and ' catrom '. Catom can return a useful second-order continuity. This operator is especially suited to replacing a grayscale image with a specific color gradient from the CLUT image.

Only the channel values defined by the -channel setting will have their values replaced. If either the image being modified, or the lookup image, contains no transparency i. That is you can use a grayscale CLUT image to adjust a existing images alpha channel, or you can color a grayscale image using colors form CLUT containing the desired colors, including transparency.

See also -hald-clut which replaces colors according to the lookup of the full color RGB value from a 2D representation of a 3D color cube. Fully define the look of each frame of an GIF animation sequence, to form a 'film strip' animation. Overlay each image in an image sequence according to its -dispose meta-data, to reproduce the look of an animation at each point in the animation sequence.

All images should be the same size, and are assigned appropriate GIF disposal settings for the animation to continue working as expected as a GIF animation.

Such frames are more easily viewed and processed than the highly optimized GIF overlay images. The animation can be re-optimized after processing using the -layers method ' optimize ', although there is no guarantee that the restored GIF animation optimization is better than the original. Colorize the image by an amount specified by value using the color specified by the most recent -fill setting. Specify the amount of colorization as a percentage.

Separate colorization values can be applied to the red, green, and blue channels of the image with a comma-delimited list of colorization values e. This option only applies when the default X server visual is PseudoColor or GrayScale. Refer to -visual for more details. By default, a shared colormap is allocated. The image shares colors with other X clients.

Some image colors could be approximated, therefore your image may look very different than intended. If private is chosen, the image colors appear exactly as they are defined. However, other clients may go technicolor when the image colormap is installed. The actual number of colors in the image may be less than your request, but never more. Note that this a color reduction option. Images with fewer unique colors than specified by value will have any duplicate or unused colors removed.

The ordering of an existing color palette may be altered. When converting an image from color to grayscale, it is more efficient to convert the image to the gray colorspace before reducing the number of colors. Refer to the color reduction algorithm for more details. This option permits saturation changes, hue rotation, luminance to alpha, and various other effects. Although variable-sized transformation matrices can be used, typically one uses a 5x5 matrix for an RGBA image and a 6x6 for CMYKA or RGBA with offsets.

The matrix is similar to those used by Adobe Flash except offsets are in column 6 rather than 5 in support of CMYKA images and offsets are normalized divide Flash offset by For a more accurate color conversion to or from the linear RGB, CMYK, or grayscale colorspaces, use the -profile option.

Note, ImageMagick assumes the sRGB colorspace if the image format does not indicate otherwise. For colorspace conversion, the gamma function is first removed to produce linear RGB.

Return a binary image where all colors within the specified range are changed to white. All other colors are changed to black. The channels previously set by -channel of the combined image are taken from the grayscale values of each image in the sequence, in order. For the default -channel setting of RGB , this means the first image is assigned to the Red channel, the second to the Green channel, the third to the Blue. This option can be thought of as the inverse to -separate , so long as the channel settings are the same.

Thus, in the following example, the final image should be a copy of the original. This option sets the comment meta-data of an image read in after this option has been given. To modify a comment of images already in memory use " -set comment ".

The comment can contain special format characters listed in the Format and Print Image Properties. These attributes are expanded when the comment is finally assigned to the individual images. If the first character of string is , the image comment is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

Comment meta-data are not visible on the image itself. produces an image comment of MIFF:bird. Mathematically and visually annotate the difference between an image and its reconstruction. This is a convert version of " compare " for two same sized images. The syntax is as follows, but other metrics are allowed.

See Alpha Compositing for a detailed discussion of alpha compositing. This setting affects image processing operators that merge two or more images together in some way. This includes the operators, -compare , -composite , -layers composite, -flatten , -mosaic , -layers merge, -border , -frame , and -extent.

Take the first image 'destination' and overlay the second 'source' image according to the current -compose setting. The location of the 'source' or 'overlay' image is controlled according to -gravity , and -geometry settings. If a third image is given this is treated as a grayscale blending 'mask' image relative to the first 'destination' image. This mask is blended with the source image. However for the ' displace ' compose method, the mask is used to provide a separate Y-displacement image instead.

If a -compose method requires extra numerical arguments or flags these can be provided by setting the -set ' option:compose:args ' appropriately for the compose method. Some -compose methods can modify the 'destination' image outside the overlay area.

It is disabled by default. The SVG compositing specification requires that color and opacity values range between zero and QuantumRange inclusive. Use pixel compression specified by type when writing the image. Choices are: None , BZip , Fax , Group4 , JPEG , JPEG , Lossless , LZW , RLE or Zip. The default is the compression type of the specified image file. If LZW compression is specified but LZW compression has not been enabled, the image data is written in an uncompressed LZW format that can be read by LZW decoders.

This may result in larger-than-expected GIF files. Lossless refers to lossless JPEG, which is only available if the JPEG library has been patched to support it.

Use of lossless JPEG is generally not recommended. When writing an ICO file, you may request that the images be encoded in PNG format, by specifying Zip compression. When writing a JNG file, specify Zip compression to request that the alpha channel be encoded in PNG "IDAT" format, or JPEG to request that it be encoded in JPG "JDAA" format. Use the -quality option to set the compression level to be used by JPEG, PNG, MIFF, and MPEG encoders.

Use the -sampling-factor option to set the sampling factor to be used by JPEG, MPEG, and YUV encoders for down-sampling the chroma channels. connected-components labeling detects connected regions in an image, choose from 4 or 8 way connectivity.

This option enhances the intensity differences between the lighter and darker elements of the image. Increase the contrast in an image by stretching the range of intensity values. While performing the stretch, black-out at most black-point pixels and white-out at most white-point pixels. Prior to ImageMagick 6. Note that -contrast-stretch 0 will modify the image such that the image's min and max values are stretched to 0 and QuantumRange , respectively, without any loss of data due to burn-out or clipping at either end.

This is not the same as -normalize , which is equivalent to -contrast-stretch 0. Internally operator works by creating a histogram bin, and then uses that bin to modify the image. As such some colors may be merged together when they originally fell into the same 'bin'. Specifying any other -channel setting will normalize the RGB channels independently. See also -auto-level for a 'perfect' normalization of mathematical images.

The kernel is a matrix specified as a comma-separated list of integers with no spaces , ordered left-to right, starting with the top row. Note that the -convolve operator supports the -bias setting. This option shifts the convolution so that positive and negative results are relative to a user-specified bias value.

Without an output bias, the negative values is clipped at zero. The width and height of the geometry argument give the size of the image that remains after cropping, and x and y in the offset if present gives the location of the top left corner of the cropped image with respect to the original image. To specify the amount to be removed, use -shave instead. If the x and y offsets are present, a single image is generated, consisting of the pixels from the cropping region.

The offsets specify the location of the upper left corner of the cropping region measured downward and rightward with respect to the upper left corner of the image. If the -gravity option is present with NorthEast , East , or SouthEast gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right edge of the image to the right edge of the cropping region. Similarly, if the -gravity option is present with SouthWest , South , or SouthEast gravity, the distance is measured upward between the bottom edges.

If the x and y offsets are omitted, a set of tiles of the specified geometry, covering the entire input image, is generated. The rightmost tiles and the bottom tiles are smaller if the specified geometry extends beyond the dimensions of the input image.

You can add the to the geometry argument to equally divide the image into the number of tiles generated. By adding a exclamation character flag to the geometry argument, the cropped images virtual canvas page size and offset is set as if the geometry argument was a viewport or window.

This means the canvas page size is set to exactly the same size you specified, the image offset set relative top left corner of the region cropped. If the cropped image 'missed' the actual image on its virtual canvas, a special single pixel transparent 'missed' image is returned, and a 'crop missed' warning given. This is especially true when you are going to write to an image format such as PNG that supports an image offset. The events parameter specifies which events are to be logged.

It can be either None , All , Trace , or a comma-separated list consisting of one or more of the following domains: Accelerate , Annotate , Blob , Cache , Coder , Configure , Deprecate , Exception , Locale , Render , Resource , Security , TemporaryFile , Transform , X11 , or User. The User domain is normally empty, but developers can log user events in their private copy of ImageMagick.

Decipher and restore pixels that were previously transformed by -encipher. For more information, see the webpage, ImageMagick: Encipher or Decipher an Image. Given a sequence of images all the same size, such as produced by -coalesce , replace the second and later images, with a smaller image of just the area that changed relative to the previous image. The resulting sequence of images can be used to optimize an animation sequence, though will not work correctly for GIF animations when parts of the animation can go from opaque to transparent.

This option is actually equivalent to the -layers method ' compare-any '. Add specific global settings generally used to control coders and image processing operations. This option creates one or more definitions for coders and decoders to use while reading and writing image data. Definitions are generally used to control image file format coder modules, and image processing operations, beyond what is provided by normal means.

Defined settings are listed in -verbose information " info: " output format as "Artifacts". If value is missing for a definition, an empty-valued definition of a flag is created with that name. The same 'artifact' settings can also be defined using the -set "option: key " " value " option, which also allows the use of Format and Print Image Properties in the defined value. The option and key are case-independent they are converted to lowercase for use within the decoders while the value is case-dependent.

See ImageMagick Defines for a list of recognized defines. For example:. Set attributes of the image registry by prefixing the value with registry:. For example, to set a temporary path to put work files, use:. The default is no delay between each showing of the image sequence. The default ticks-per-second is However, if the image delay is 40 or 50, the delay it is changed to Negative indexes are relative to the end of the sequence, for example, -1 represents the last image of the sequence.

Separate indexes with a comma e. Use -delete to delete the entire image sequence. You can also delete images from the persistent registry, e. Set the horizontal and vertical resolution of an image for rendering to devices.

This option specifies the image resolution to store while encoding a raster image or the canvas resolution while rendering reading vector formats such as Postscript, PDF, WMF, and SVG into a raster image. Image resolution provides the unit of measure to apply when rendering to an output device or raster image. The default unit of measure is in dots per inch DPI. The -units option may be used to select dots per centimeter instead.

The default resolution is 72 dots per inch, which is equivalent to one point per pixel Macintosh and Postscript standard. Computer screens are normally 72 or 96 dots per inch, while printers typically support , , , or dots per inch. To determine the resolution of your display, use a ruler to measure the width of your screen in inches, and divide by the number of horizontal pixels on a x display.

If the file format supports it, this option may be used to update the stored image resolution. Note that Photoshop stores and obtains image resolution from a proprietary embedded profile. If this profile is not stripped from the image, then Photoshop will continue to treat the image using its former resolution, ignoring the image resolution specified in the standard file header.

The -density option sets an attribute and does not alter the underlying raster image. It may be used to adjust the rendered size for desktop publishing purposes by adjusting the scale applied to the pixels. To resize the image so that it is the same size at a different resolution, use the -resample option. Color depth is the number of bits per channel for each pixel. Use this option to specify the depth of raw images formats whose depth is unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK, or to change the depth of any image after it has been read.

Use -set option:deskew:auto-crop true false to auto crop the image. Render text right-to-left or left-to-right. Requires the RAQM delegate library and complex text layout. With this option, the 'overlay' image, and optionally the 'mask' image, is used as a displacement map, which is used to displace the lookup of what part of the 'background' image is seen at each point of the overlaid area.

Much like the displacement map is a 'lens' that redirects light shining through it so as to present a distorted view the original 'background' image behind it. Any perfect grey areas of the displacement map produce a zero displacement of the image. Black areas produce the given maximum negative displacement of the lookup point, while white produce a maximum positive displacement of the lookup.

Note that it is the lookup of the 'background' that is displaced, not a displacement of the image itself. Understanding this is a very important in understanding how displacement maps work.

The given arguments define the maximum amount of displacement in pixels that a particular map can produce. If the displacement scale is large enough it is also possible to lookup parts of the 'background' image that lie well outside the bounds of the displacement map itself. That is you could very easily copy a section of the original image from outside the overlay area into the overlay area. Using '! these flags were added as of IM v6. Normally a single grayscale displacement map is provided, which with the given scaling values will determine a single direction vector in which displacements can occur positively or negatively.

However, if you also specify a third image which is normally used as a mask , the composite image is used for horizontal X displacement, while the mask image is used for vertical Y displacement. This allows you to define completely different displacement values for the X and Y directions, and allowing you to lookup any point within the scale bounds. In other words each pixel can lookup any other nearby pixel, producing complex 2 dimensional displacements, rather than a simple 1 dimensional vector displacements.

Alternatively rather than supplying two separate images, as of IM v6. As of IM v6. However areas outside the overlaid areas will not be affected. This option is used with convert for obtaining image or font from this X server. See X 1. Define the GIF disposal image setting for images that are being created or read in. The layer disposal method defines the way each the displayed image is to be modified after the current 'frame' of an animation has finished being displayed after its 'delay' period , but before the next frame on an animation is to be overlaid onto the display.

You can also use the numbers given above, which is what the GIF format uses internally to represent the above settings. Use -set ' dispose ' method to set the image disposal method for images already in memory. The opacity of the composite image is multiplied by the given percent, then it is composited 'over' the main image.

If both percentages are given, each image are dissolved to the percentages given. Distort an image, using the given method and its required arguments. The arguments is a single string containing a list of floating point numbers separated by commas or spaces. The number of and meaning of the floating point values depends on the distortion method being used. Many of the above distortion methods such as ' Affine ', ' Perspective ', and ' Shepards ' use a list control points defining how these points in the given image should be distorted in the destination image.

Each set of four floating point values represent a source image coordinate, followed immediately by the destination image coordinate. This produces a list of values such as For example, to warp an image using ' perspective ' distortion, needs a list of at least 4 sets of coordinates, or 16 numbers. Here is the perspective distortion of the built-in "rose:" image. Note how spaces were used to group the 4 sets of coordinate pairs, to make it easier to read and understand.

If more that the required number of coordinate pairs are given for a distortion, the distortion method is 'least squares' fitted to produce the best result for all the coordinate pairs given. If less than the ideal number of points are given, the distort will generally fall back to a simpler form of distortion that can handles the smaller number of coordinates usually a linear ' Affine ' distortion.

By using more coordinates you can make use of image registration tool to find matching coordinate pairs in overlapping images, so as to improve the 'fit' of the distortion. Of course a bad coordinate pair can also make the 'fit' worse. Caution is always advised. Colors are acquired from the source image according to a cylindrical resampling -filter , using a special technique known as EWA resampling.

This produces very high quality results, especially when images become smaller minified in the output, which is very common when using ' perspective ' distortion. For example here we view a infinitely tiled 'plane' all the way to the horizon.

Note that a infinitely tiled perspective images involving the horizon can be very slow, because of the number of pixels that are compressed to generate each individual pixel close to the 'horizon'. You can turn off EWA resampling, by specifying the special -filter setting of ' point ' recommended if you plan to use super-sampling instead. If an image generates invalid pixels , such as the 'sky' in the last example, -distort will use the current -mattecolor setting for these pixels.

If you do not what these pixels to be visible, set the color to match the rest of the ground. The output image size will by default be the same as the input image.

This means that if the part of the distorted image falls outside the viewed area of the 'distorted space', those parts is clipped and lost. Setting -verbose setting, will cause -distort to attempt to output the internal coefficients, and the -fx equivalent to the distortion, for expert study, and debugging purposes.

This many not be available for all distorts. This can be used either for 'super-sampling' the image for a higher quality result, or for panning and zooming around the image with appropriate viewport changes, or post-distort cropping and resizing.

Note this table uses a squared radius lookup value. This is typically only used for debugging EWA resampling. Apply a Riemersma or Floyd-Steinberg error diffusion dither to images when general color reduction is applied via an option, or automagically when saving to specific formats.

This enabled by default. Dithering places two or more colors in neighboring pixels so that to the eye a closer approximation of the images original color is reproduced. This reduces the number of colors needed to reproduce the image but at the cost of a lower level pattern of colors. Error diffusion dithers can use any set of colors generated or user defined to an image. This will also render PostScript without text or graphic aliasing. Disabling dithering often but not always leads to faster process, a smaller number of colors, but more cartoon like image coloring.

Generally resulting in 'color banding' effects in areas with color gradients. The color reduction operators -colors , -monochrome , -remap , and -posterize , apply dithering to images using the reduced color set they created.

These operators are also used as part of automatic color reduction when saving images to formats with limited color support, such as GIF: , XBM: , and others, so dithering may also be used in these cases.

Alternatively you can use -random-threshold to generate purely random dither. Or use -ordered-dither to apply threshold mapped dither patterns, using uniform color maps, rather than specific color maps.

Use this option to annotate or decorate an image with one or more graphic primitives. The primitives include shapes, text, transformations, and pixel operations. The text gravity primitive only affects the placement of text and does not interact with the other primitives. It is equivalent to using the -gravity command-line option, except that it is limited in scope to the -draw option in which it appears.

The shape primitives are drawn in the color specified by the preceding -fill setting. For unfilled shapes, use -fill none. You can optionally control the stroke the "outline" of a shape with the -stroke and -strokewidth settings. A point primitive is specified by a single point in the pixel plane, that is, by an ordered pair of integer coordinates, x , y.

As it involves only a single pixel, a point primitive is not affected by -stroke or -strokewidth. A rectangle primitive is specified by the pair of points at the upper left and lower right corners. A roundRectangle primitive takes the same corner points as a rectangle followed by the width and height of the rounded corners to be removed. The circle primitive makes a disk filled or circle unfilled. Give the center and any point on the perimeter boundary.

Note, by using a translation, you can remove the need to calculate the circles edge coordinate, but can just give the radius directly:. The arc primitive is used to inscribe an elliptical segment in to a given rectangle. An arc requires the two corners used for rectangle see above followed by the start and end angles of the arc of the segment e. The start and end points produced are then joined with a line segment and the resulting segment of an ellipse is filled. Use ellipse to draw a partial or whole ellipse.

Give the center point, the horizontal and vertical "radii" the semi-axes of the ellipse and start and end angles in degrees e. The polyline and polygon primitives require three or more points to define their perimeters. A polyline is simply a polygon in which the final point is not stroked to the start point.

When unfilled, this is a polygonal line. If the -stroke setting is none the default , then a polyline is identical to a polygon. The Bezier primitive creates a spline curve and requires three or points to define its shape.

The first and last points are the knots and these points are attained by the curve, while any intermediate coordinates are control points. If two control points are specified, the line between each end knot and its sequentially respective control point determines the tangent direction of the curve at that end. If one control point is specified, the lines from the end knots to the one control point determines the tangent directions of the curve at each end.

If more than two control points are specified, then the additional control points act in combination to determine the intermediate shape of the curve. In order to draw complex curves, it is highly recommended either to use the path primitive or to draw multiple four-point bezier segments with the start and end knots of each successive segment repeated. A path represents an outline of an object, defined in terms of moveto set a new current point , lineto draw a straight line , curveto draw a Bezier curve , arc elliptical or circular arc and closepath close the current shape by drawing a line to the last moveto elements.

Compound paths i. See Paths. Use image to composite an image with another image. Follow the image keyword with the composite operator, image location, image size, and filename:. You can use 0,0 for the image size, which means to use the actual dimensions found in the image header.

Otherwise, it is scaled to the given dimensions. See Alpha Compositing for a detailed discussion of alpha composition methods that are available. The "special augmented compose operators" such as "dissolve" that require arguments cannot be used at present with the -draw image option. Use text to annotate an image with text. Follow the text coordinates with a string. If the string has embedded spaces, enclose it in single or double quotes.

For example, the following annotates the image with Works like magick! for an image titled bird. See the -annotate option for another convenient way to annotate an image with text. The rotate primitive rotates subsequent shape primitives and text primitives about the origin of the main image:.

The skewX and skewY primitives skew them with respect to the origin of the main image or the region. The transformations modify the current affine matrix, which is initialized from the initial affine matrix defined by the -affine option. Transformations are cumulative within the -draw option. The initial affine matrix is not affected; that matrix is only changed by the appearance of another -affine option.

If another -draw option appears, the current affine matrix is reinitialized from the initial affine matrix. Use the color primitive to change the color of a pixel to the fill color see -fill. Follow the pixel coordinate with a method:. Consider the target pixel as that specified by your coordinate. The point method recolors the target pixel. The replace method recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel. Floodfill recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder recolors any neighbor pixel that is not the border color.

Finally, reset recolors all pixels. Use matte to the change the pixel matte value to transparent. Follow the pixel coordinate with a method see the color primitive for a description of methods. The point method changes the matte value of the target pixel. The replace method changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel.

Floodfill changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder changes the matte value of any neighbor pixel that is not the border color -bordercolor.

Finally reset changes the matte value of all pixels. You can set the primitive color, font, and font bounding box color with -fill , -font , and -box respectively.

Options are processed in command line order so be sure to use these options before the -draw option. Drawing primitives conform to the Magick Vector Graphics format. Note, drawing requires an alpha channel. If none is available, an all opaque alpha channel is implicitedly created. Specify the count and the image to duplicate by its index in the sequence. Encipher pixels for later deciphering by -decipher. Specify endianness MSB or LSB of the image.

To perform histogram equalization on all channels in concert, transform the image into some other color space, such as HSL, OHTA, YIQ or YUV, then equalize the appropriate intensity-like channel, then convert back to RGB. For example using HSL, we have For YIQ, YUV and OHTA use the red channel. For example, OHTA is a principal components transformation that puts most of the information in the first channel. Here we have Alter channel pixels by evaluating an arithmetic, relational, or logical expression.

See the -function operator for some multi-parameter functions. See the -fx operator if more elaborate calculations are needed. The behaviors of each operator are summarized in the following list. For brevity, the numerical value of a "pixel" referred to below is the value of the corresponding channel of that pixel, while a "normalized pixel" is that number divided by the maximum installation-dependent value QuantumRange.

If normalized pixels are used, they are restored, following the other calculations, to the full range by multiplying by QuantumRange. The specified functions are applied only to each previously set -channel in the image. If necessary, the results of the calculations are truncated clipped to fit in the interval [0, QuantumRange ].

To print a complete list of -evaluate operators, use -list evaluate. AddModulus has been added as of ImageMagick 6. It is therefore equivalent to Add unless the resulting pixel value is outside the interval [0, QuantumRange ]. Exp or Exponential has been added as of ImageMagick 6. The value used with Exp should be negative so as to produce a decaying exponential function. Non-negative values will always produce results larger unity and thus outside the interval [0, QuantumRange ].

The formula is expressed below. If the input image is squared, for example, using -function polynomial "2 0 0" , then a decaying Gaussian function will be the result. Log has been added as of ImageMagick 6.

This a scaled log function. The value used with Log provides a scaling factor that adjusts the curvature in the graph of the log function. The formula applied to a normalized value u is below. Pow has been added as of ImageMagick 6. Note that Pow is related to the -gamma operator. For example, -gamma 2 is equivalent to -evaluate pow 0.

The value used with -gamma is simply the reciprocal of the value used with Pow. Cosine and Sine was added as of IM v6. The synonyms Cos and Sin may also be used. The value scaling of the period of the function its frequency , and thus determines the number of 'waves' that will be generated over the input color range.

For example, if the value is 1, the effective period is simply the QuantumRange ; but if the value is 2, then the effective period is the half the QuantumRange. See also the -function operator, which is a multi-value version of evaluate.

Alter channel pixels by evaluating an arithmetic, relational, or logical expression over a sequence of images. Ensure all the images in the sequence are in the same colorspace, otherwise you may get unexpected results, e. add -colorspace sRGB to your command-line. To print a complete list of -evaluate-sequence operators, use -list evaluate. No further options are processed after this option. Useful in a script to force the magick command to exit without actually closing the pipeline that it is processing options from.

You can also use the option as a final option on the magick command line instead of an implicit output image, to completely prevent any image write. Note, even the NULL: coder requires at least one image, for it to 'not write'! This option does not require any images at all. If the image is enlarged, unfilled areas are set to the background color.

To position the image, use offsets in the geometry specification or precede with a -gravity setting. To specify how to compose the image with the background, use -compose. The following command reduces or expands a JPEG image to fit on an x display.

If the aspect ratio of the input image isn't exactly , then the image is centered on an x black canvas:. The command can also be used with a ratio. If the image is not already at that ratio, it will be cropped to fit it. The -gravity setting has the expected effects.

The following command crops a JPEG image so that it has a ratio:. This option is most useful for extracting a subregion of a very large raw image. Note that these two commands are equivalent:. This setting suggests a font family that ImageMagick should try to use for rendering text. If the family can be found it is used; if not, a default font e. Note, the family can be a CSS-style font list. For other settings that affect fonts, see the options -font , -pointsize , -stretch , -style , and -weight.

Display co-occurrence matrix texture measure features for each channel in the image in each of four directions horizontal, vertical, left and right diagonals for the specified distance. This option is new as of ImageMagick 6. It transforms an image from the normal spatial domain to the frequency domain. In the frequency domain, an image is represented as a superposition of complex sinusoidal waves of varying amplitudes.

The image x and y coordinates are the possible frequencies along the x and y directions, respectively, and the pixel intensity values are complex numbers that correspond to the sinusoidal wave amplitudes. See for example, Fourier Transform , Discrete Fourier Transform and Fast Fourier Transform. A single image name is provided as output for this option.

However, the output result will have two components. It is either a two-frame image or two separate images, depending upon whether the image format specified supports multi-frame images. The reason that we get a dual output result is because the frequency domain represents an image using complex numbers, which cannot be visualized directly.

Therefore, the complex values are automagically separated into a two-component image representation. The first component is the magnitude of the complex number and the second is the phase of the complex number. See for example, Complex Numbers. The magnitude and phase component images must be specified using image formats that do not limit the color or compress the image.

Thus, MIFF, TIF, PFM, EXR and PNG are the recommended image formats to use. All of these formats, except PNG support multi-frame images.

So for example,. The input image can be any size, but if not square and even-dimensioned, it is padded automagically to the larger of the width or height of the input image and to an even number of pixels.

The resulting output magnitude and phase images is square at this size. The kind of padding relies on the -virtual-pixel setting. Both output components will have dynamic ranges that fit within [0, QuantumRange ], so that HDRI need not be enabled.

The first few releases had non-HDRI scaled but HDRI not scaled. The magnitude image is not scaled and thus generally will contain very small values. As such, the image normally will appear totally black. In order to view any detail, the magnitude image typically is enhanced with a log function into what is usually called the spectrum. A log function is used to enhance the darker values more in comparison to the lighter values. This can be done, for example, as follows:. where either -contrast-stretch 0 or -auto-level is used to scale the image to full dynamic range, first.

The argument to the -evaluate log typically is specified between and 10,, depending upon the amount of detail that one wants to bring out in the spectrum. Larger values produce more visible detail. Too much detail, however, may hide the important features.

The FFTW delegate library is required to use -fft. However, as the real and imaginary components can contain negative values, this requires that IM be configured with HDRI enabled. In this case, you must use either MIFF, TIF, PFM or MPC formats for the real and imaginary component results, since they are formats that preserve both negative and fractional values without clipping them or truncating the fractional part.

For more about HDRI go the ImageMagick Usage pages, Fred's Fourier Processing With ImageMagick page or this Wikipedia entry. By default the FFT is normalized and the IFT is not. This option accepts a color name, a hex color, or a numerical RGB, RGBA, HSL, HSLA, CMYK, or CMYKA specification. See Color Names for a description of how to properly specify the color argument. Enclose the color specification in quotation marks to prevent the " " or the parentheses from being interpreted by your shell.

Use this type of filter when resizing or distorting an image. Use this option to affect the resizing operation of an image during operations such as -resize and -distort.

For example you can use a simple resize filter such as:. The Bessel and Sinc filter is also provided as well as a faster SincFast equivalent form. However these filters are generally useless on their own as they are infinite filters that are being clipped to the filters support size. Their direct use is not recommended except via expert settings see below.

Instead these special filter functions are typically windowed by a windowing function that the -filter setting defines. That is using these functions will define a 'Windowed' filter, appropriate to the operator involved.

Windowed filters include:. Also one special self-windowing filter is also provided Lagrange , which will automagically re-adjust its function depending on the current 'support' or 'lobes' expert settings see below. If you do not select a filter with this option, the filter defaults to Mitchell for a colormapped image, an image with a matte channel, or if the image is enlarged.

Otherwise the filter default to Lanczos. You can modify how the filter behaves as it scales your image through the use of these expert settings see also -define and -set To extract the data for a raw windowing function, combine it with a ' Box ' filter. For example the ' Welch parabolic windowing function.

Note that the use of expert options is provided for image processing experts who have studied and understand how resize filters work. Without this knowledge, and an understanding of the definition of the actual filters involved, using expert settings are more likely to be detrimental to your image resizing. This is a simple alias for the -layers method "flatten". Flood fill starts from the given 'seed point' which is not gravity affected. Any color that matches within -fuzz color distance of the given color argument, connected to that 'seed point' will be replaced with the current -fill color.

Note that if the pixel at the 'seed point' does not itself match the given color according to -fuzz , then no action will be taken. This operator works more like the -opaque option, than a more general flood fill that reads the matching color directly at the 'seed point'. For this form of flood fill, look at -draw and its 'color floodfill' drawing method.

Set the font to use when annotating images with text, or creating labels. To print a complete list of fonts, use the -list font option for versions prior to 6. In addition to the fonts specified by the above pre-defined list, you can also specify a font from a specific source.

For example Arial. ttf is a TrueType font file, ps:helvetica is PostScript font, and x:fixed is X11 font. For other settings that affect fonts, see the options -family , -stretch , -style , and -weight. To specify an explicit font filename or collection, specify the font path preceded with a , e. You can specify the font face index for font collections, e. When used with the mogrify utility, this option converts any image to the image format you specify. For a list of image format types supported by ImageMagick, use -list format.

By default the file is written to its original name. However, if the filename extension matches a supported format, the extension is replaced with the image format type specified with -format. For example, if you specify tiff as the format type and the input image filename is image. gif , the output image filename becomes image.

See Format and Print Image Properties for an explanation on how to specify the argument to this option. The color of the border is specified with the -mattecolor command line option.

The size portion of the geometry argument indicates the amount of extra width and height that is added to the dimensions of the image. If no offsets are given in the geometry argument, then the border added is a solid color. Offsets x and y , if present, specify that the width and height of the border is partitioned to form an outer bevel of thickness x pixels and an inner bevel of thickness y pixels.

Negative offsets make no sense as frame arguments. The -frame option is affected by the current -compose setting and assumes that this is using the default ' Over ' composition method. It generates an image of the appropriate size with the current -bordercolor setting, and then draws the frame of four distinct colors close to the current -mattecolor. The original image is then overlaid onto center of this image.

This operator performs calculations based on the given arguments to modify each of the color values for each previously set -channel in the image. See -evaluate for details concerning how the results of the calculations are handled. This is can be considered a multi-argument version of the -evaluate operator.

Added in ImageMagick 6. Here, parameters is a comma-separated list of numerical values. The number of values varies depending on which function is selected. Choose the function from:. To print a complete list of -function operators, use -list function.

Descriptions follow. The Polynomial function takes an arbitrary number of parameters, these being the coefficients of a polynomial, in decreasing order of degree.

That is, entering. The Polynomial function can be used in place of Set the constant polynomial and Add , Divide , Multiply , and Subtract some linear polynomials of the -evaluate operator. The -level operator also affects channels linearly. Some correspondences follow.

The Polynomial function gives great versatility, since polynomials can be used to fit any continuous curve to any degree of accuracy desired. The Sinusoid function can be used to vary the channel values sinusoidally by setting frequency, phase shift, amplitude, and a bias. These values are given as one to four parameters, as follows,. where phase is in degrees.

The domain [0,1] of the function corresponds to 0 through freq × degrees. The result is that if a pixel's normalized channel value is originally u , its resulting normalized value is given by. For example, the following generates a curve that starts and ends at 0. The default values of amp and bias are both. The default for phase is 0. The Sinusoid function generalizes Sin and Cos of the -evaluate operator by allowing varying amplitude, phase and bias.

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